Despite, Nepal being second most water richest country and having possibility of turning into 100% renewable energy, it is not able to turn carbon emission into zero instead it is being polluted day by day. According to latest pollution index published by Serbia-based research website Numbeo.com, Nepal’s Capital city sits in the third position of the pollution ranking with a pollution index of 96.66. The last pollution ranking published in the middle of 2015 had also placed Kathmandu in the third position while in the beginning of 2015 Kathmandu was in the fifth position. The 2014 Yale Environmental Performing Index ranked Nepal’s (read Kathmandu’s) air quality to be one of the worst in the world—second only to Bangladesh’s.
Air gets polluted because of the presence of natural pollutant like poisonous gases like CO, NO, SO2, O3, NO2, etc. Incompletes combustion of carbon containing fuels used in automobile engines and defective furnace .In 10 years the number of vehicles has tripled and there are now nearly 700,000 cars, buses, motorbikes and rickshaws on Kathmandu’s roads. New car registrations are rising by 12% a year. Two-thirds of the dreaded particles are caused by vehicle emissions and dust and produces pollutant CO.
Air pollution has been linked to acute and chronic health effects. The study showed that the number of patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) nearly doubled during the review period. Incidences of COPD increased about 30-50 percent during the winter season, which is explained by the thermal inversion phenomenon in the cup-shaped valley exacerbating the air pollution problems in the cold months. Kathmandu’s traffic police, who attempt to control the city’s jams, are among the most vulnerable to the effects of highly carcinogenic PM10 particles.
In year 2010 20.2 million peoples of Nepal are dependent in solid fuels for the energy, when coal, wood and oil are burnt, black smoke is produced. This black smoke contains CO. Many peoples of Nepal also have cigarettes, which also lead to CO emission. It estimated that about 19,000 cases of asthma and hundreds of cases of bronchitis and other health-related disorders were caused due to the air pollution. A recent research by the Harvard School of Public Health has also revealed that non-smokers living in areas with high levels of air pollution are 20 percent more likely to die from lung cancer.
Inhale of CO can cause anoxia (oxygen starvation) and also can leads to death of a infected person. It has been known that smoking reduces mental
Performance such as taking test, driving an automobile and may lead to heart diseases. In year 2015 chemical smog was seen in Kathmandu, which symbolizes the eagerly air pollution situation in Nepal. The droplets of H2SO4 due to formation of sulphur dioxide and particulate matter from the combustion of fossils fuels condensed on smoke. It causes respiratory problems. It was first of all reported in London in December 1952. It is known that the city was remained covered for five days with a thick cloud of chemical smog. In this disaster 3200 people were died.
Air pollution is killing 3.3 million people a year worldwide. Scientist in Germany, Cyprus, Saudi Arabia and Harvard University calculated the most detailed estimates yet of the toll of air pollution, looking at what caused it. The study also projects that if trends don’t change, the yearly death toll will double to about 6.6 million a year by 2050.Thus, we need to think about our future and work from local level to international level for controlling air pollution by keeping the fossil fuel under the ground.